Tag Archives: West Bank

West Bank barrier separates families

The stories of five Palestinians living under Israel’s military occupation are shared below. OCHA has compiled 50 stories here. I hope these stories reach the hearts of many Americans. Enough is enough. Fifty years of occupation is enough.



Ammar Masamir from QUSRA | NABLUS

On 10 January 2013, armed settlers raided fields next to the village of Qusra, and clashed with local residents. Some settlers opened fire and Palestinians threw stones.

Israeli forces at the scene fired tear gas, rubber coated bullets and live ammunition towards Palestinians.

Some Palestinians were injured, and many trees were vandalized and damaged.

Ammar was 19 years old back then.

He was shot with live ammunition in his leg, and sustained three fractured bones.

❝I run a barber shop in Qusra and my father used to work in a settlement,❞ he told us shortly after the incident.

❝These were the only sources of income for my family, which includes eight people.

❝After the attack, my leg was operated on, and since then I can’t move. The doctors said that I need at least three months before I can start physiotherapy.

❝My father had to quit his job to keep the shop running. The incident directly worsened our economic situation.



Khader Radad from AZ ZAWIYA | SALFIT

About 35 per cent (8,000 dunums) of the agricultural land of Az Zawiya (population 5,768), all planted with olive trees, is located in the seam zone behind the Barrier and within Elkana settlement boundaries.

To access land in this area, Palestinian farmers must obtain a permit to cross the Barrier through the agricultural gate controlled by the Israeli army. They also need prior coordination to cross the fences surrounding the settlement.

Khader Raddad and his family own six dunums of land (20 olive trees) behind the Barrier, and 15 dunums (250 olive trees) on the Palestinian side of the Barrier. In September 2013, at least 320 olive trees belonging to Az Zawiya were completely burned in the seam zone.


Az Zawiya village & Salfit governorate

❝The land is not ploughed and the grass is dry… throw a match and boom! All the trees are burnt,❞ said Khader.

OCHA has monitored the productivity of Khader’s olive trees since 2013 by testing 10 trees on each side of the Barrier.

In 2016, the 10 trees on the Palestinian side produced 150 kg of olives, while the ones on other side of the Barrier produced only 50 kg.


Prior to the completion of the Barrier in 2004, Khader’s family was self-sufficient, but they now have to buy olive oil from the market to meet their needs.



Amal as Samouni from AZ ZEITUN | GAZA

We met Amal  in 2012, in Gaza, when she was 11-years-old.

Three years earlier, during Israel’s offensive in 2009, soldiers ordered over 100 members her extended family into one house. A day later, the residence was hit by Israeli artillery shells and live ammunition. Twenty-seven family members were killed, including 11 children and six women, and 35 others were injured.

Amal was left with permanent sharpnel injuries and trauma.

❝I remember my brother and father and how they were killed in every moment… we were a happy family. Now I don’t feel happy anymore,❞ she told us.

❝For one year we lived with the parents of my mother… Then we lived in a storage room for a year and a half. It didn’t have a floor. For the last six months, we have been living where our old house used to be…

❝I want to have another doctor look at my situation, and to try everything possible to end my pain. I wish to travel not for amusement, but for medical treatment.

❝When I have a lot of pain I become nervous and angry. When I am sad I go to my aunt’s house to see my cousins, or I prepare my books for school

❝Before the war I excelled in school. Now my scores are not so good anymore.❞


Ahmad Ayyad from ABU DIS | JERUSALEM
Ahmad Ayyad, born in 1929, is a resident of Abu Dis, who in 2013 suffered from renal failure and is in need of regular kidney dialysis. The Augusta Victoria hospital in East Jerusalem would have been the most suitable medical centre for this treatment, as it is located only 3.4 km (2 miles) away from his home.
However, because of the West Bank Barrier separating his home from East Jerusalem, his family had take him to a medical centre in Beit Jala (Bethlehem governorate), which is located 40 minutes drive away, three times a week.
This journey is more difficult and costly for the patient and his family.
Recorded in 2014, this video was part of OCHA’s interactive map project, which marked the tenth anniversary to the West Bank Barrier by illustrating its impact on Palestinian communities in and around East Jerusalem.


We met Razan and her family in 2011 in their home, in a neighbourhood of Abu Dis which is separated from the rest of the community by the West Bank Barrier and can be freely accessed only through East Jerusalem.


Razan from ABU DIS | EAST JERUSALEM SIDE OF THE BARRIER — In this picture, Razan is seen next to her twin brother, Anan (photo by JC Tordai, 2010)

❝In our neighbourhood,❞ her mother Salam told us, ❝there are four families of West Bank ID holders who, after the Wall was built, are stuck on the Jerusalem side without Jerusalem ID cards or permits to stay in Jerusalem.

Razan’s father is one of those ‘West-Bankers’ whom Israel does not recognize as Jerusalem residents and therefore need permits to stay in Jerusalem.

In the absence of such a permit, in 2010, he had to leave and reside on the other side of the Barrier.

Razan and her siblings lived without their father for more than six months.

The children have a hard time separated from their father. Every time they say a prayer, they ask God to give their father a permit to bring him back to them.

❝However, I can’t risk my or the children’s status [Jerusalem residents] by moving to the [other side] to live with him.❞

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The occupation must end NOW!

Fifty years, 2 or 3 generations of Palestinians have lived under Israeli military occupation. I fear that the children grow up thinking “this life is normal.” Below are the stories of 5 Palestinians shared from the 50 stories that OCHA compiled here. We must end this occupation. Now!



Masa’ad abu Gaddaieen from BEIT LAHIA, GAZA

We met Masa’ad in 2015, a few months after the 2014 escalation in Gaza. He was 46 years old, unemployed, but years of hard work in the agricultural sector had enabled him to save some money that he invested in the construction of his home.

In Gaza you are not safe at home. My family and I have been displaced twice in two years. The first time was during the Israeli military operation in November 2012, and the second time as a result of the recent conflict.❞

When the Israeli military ground operation began, the family left their home and took shelter in one of the UNRWA schools, where the situation was very difficult.

❝We managed to visit our home during the temporary ceasefire 25 days into the hostilities. We found our home and around 95 other homes in the area completely destroyed by Israeli bulldozers.

❝We were shocked and helpless; it was all gone, everything we had struggled to build. I have worked all my life to have a house of my own, and then the Israeli bulldozers came and destroyed it in seconds.❞

After the end of the hostilities, Masa’ad and his family had to relocate to another UNRWA shelter in Ar Remal area, where they stayed for 15 days before moving to a shelter in Beach camp, where some of the family still live.

❝The long stay and situation inside the shelter has become a great strain on my family and I have no money to rent an apartment. The economic situation is very difficult. We erected a makeshift shelter from plastic and fabric near our destroyed home.❞

When we met him, some members of his family felt more comfortable staying in the makeshift shelter despite the winter season and the exposure to harsh weather conditions.

❝We are waiting for UNRWA assistance to be able to rent an apartment temporarily, but we have heard that UNRWA has no money to help us. All I hope for is that our home will be reconstructed very soon so we can return to a life of dignity.❞

Restrictions on the import of goods, including basic construction materials, imposed by Israel as part of its blockade, have complicated, delayed and, in some cases prevented reconstruction and repair of destroyed or severely damaged homes.

In other cases, where goods are available, families lack the financial resources to purchase them due to the poor economic situation in Gaza caused largely by the years-long blockade.



Abeer an Nemnem from SHATA REFUGEE CAMP | GAZA

❝We live a very miserable life in Gaza. My husband is unemployed due to health problems and I work in a kindergarten for NIS300 [US$83] a month.

❝We are a family with 10 children, most of whom go to school except the youngest. We struggle every day to meet our children’s growing needs and to put food on their plates.

❝In addition, we have to cope with problems beyond our control, such as electricity cuts, water shortages and lack of cooking gas.

❝The shortage of cooking gas is every mother’s nightmare. If we run out of gas, we have to wait for more than three weeks to get our gas cylinder refilled.

❝We cannot afford a backup cylinder as we are too poor. During these three weeks, I sometimes use a small gas cylinder to light the house for food preparation during electricity cuts.

❝When the small cylinder runs out, I try to time preparing the food with the electricity cuts schedule, using an unsafe electric cooking stove to prepare simple meals such as fried potatoes or eggs or boiling milk for the children.

❝The stove is not safe because of the poor electricity supply and because it is low on the ground and I’m always afraid one of the children will knock it over and burn themselves.

❝It often happens that the children wake up at night during electricity cuts and I cannot even prepare milk for them.

It’s even worse when my children have to go to school without breakfast or even a cup of milk or tea. The same thing happens when they come back from school – no food if there is no gas or electricity.

❝Our house is small; I cannot build a wood stove to prepare food for the children to reduce the risks from the electric stove. My children are exposed to danger every time we run out of gas, but what can I do?❞    (Her testimony was collected in April 2014.)




Five-year-old Salem became homeless on 6  April 2016. 

It happened when Israeli authorities destroyed six homes in his community.

The demolitions that day displaced a total of 34 Palestinians, among them 12 children.


Between 2011 and 2016, structures in Umm al Khair were demolished on nine occasions.

Demolitions like these occur on the grounds that the structures lack Israeli-issued building permits, but these are almost impossible to obtain.



Um ‘Ahed al Ajla from GAZA

During the 2014 escalation of hostilities in Gaza, Um ‘Ahed Al Ajla sought shelter with her extended family on the top floor of a construction site.

However, the neighbourhood they settled in was also hit in Israeli attacks and her family had to take refuge again in another area, before having to relocate for a third time after their shelter was hit.

❝Our life is all running and flight,❞ she said.

After the ceasefire, the family stayed in buildings that lacked the most basic facilities or sanitation and hygiene facilities, relying on makeshift washrooms. The female members of the family lacked privacy.

Drinking water (desalinated) was not available in the building and had to be bought from private vendors at distribution points in the neighbourhood.

Her family had no choice but to make daily trips to fetch fresh water from 300 metres away in jerry cans.

❝Sometimes we stay the whole day long without a drop to drink. Water is the basis for everything and we don’t have it,❞ she said.

For most of their domestic needs such as cooking, cleaning and bathing, the family used saline water from the municipality, which was available sporadically and only for a few hours per day.

The dire sanitation and hygiene conditions and the lack of clean water had caused several health problems and the youngest family members suffered from skin problems.



Ala’ Zawahri from UM AL ASAFIR, JERUSALEM (Photos by Patrick Zoll, 2012)

The construction of the West Bank Barrier has left about 1,500 West Bank ID card holders on the ‘Jerusalem’ side.

One such community is Um Al Asafir, where residents face access restrictions to their health and other services which are located on the ‘West Bank’ side of the Barrier.

We met Ala’ Zawahri, who has mental and physical disabilities, in 2010, when she was eight years old.

Living in a house trapped between Har Homa settlement and the Barrier, her parents have to make an arduous journey to Bethlehem or to Beit Sahur to obtain medical services for their daughter.

❝Just last week, ❞ her mother told us, ❝we needed to bring Ala’ to the doctor. She cannot speak, but when she cries, we know something is wrong, because usually she is very quiet.

When she was little, we could drive to Bethlehem or Beit Sahur in less than 15 minutes. That was before the Barrier was built just outside our home. Now we have to find a taxi driver who actually comes here, to drive us to Gilo checkpoint.

❝We then cross on foot carrying Ala’ in our arms. Then we take another taxi to the clinic or hospital. All together 45 shekels one way. Most of the time, this takes one to one-and-a half hours.

❝Ala’ cannot eat by herself, she cannot even sit up. Most of the time she just lies quietly on her couch. She needs constant care and the doctor says that she will need it all her life.

❝Here, where we live, there is no care for Ala’ at all, no doctor, no mobile clinic. Nobody supports us in taking care of her. About 100 metres from here, in the Israeli settlement, there is everything. But we are not allowed to go there. We have West Bank ID cards, although we live on the Jerusalem side of the Barrier.

❝We have repeatedly tried to register Ala’ for health insurance, but without success. Fifty-three members of our family live here in Um Al Asafir – nobody has health insurance…


Ala’ with her mother, 2010

❝A friendly doctor in Bethlehem used to treat Ala’ for free❞ her mother added. ❝But he died. Now we not only have to pay for transport and medicine, but for doctors’ visits too. All in all, over 500 shekels since last year.

❝We have six other children. They are older and live with relatives in Beit Sahur on the other side of the Barrier in order to go to school and university easily.

❝From the hill outside our house we can see where they stay – but in order to visit their handicapped sister Ala’, they need to make the long journey through the checkpoint.


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The impact of the 50-year occupation today, with US support.

This is the third in a series of posts that share the stories of Palestinians who have lived under occupation for 50 years. The stories were compiled by OCHA and all of them are available here.

I’m reposting these stories (five at a time) because I am alarmed that members of Congress and most Americans don’t understand the impact of Israel’s 50-year brutal occupation, largely financed and supported by American taxpayers.  We bear a lion’s share of the responsibility for the conditions in the occupied territories because the U.S. government shields Israel from any accountability. Maintaining the status quo and the horrid conditions is easier for the government of Israel than ending the occupation.

Fatma Saudi

Fatma Saudi


Restrictions on the import of goods, including basic construction materials, imposed by Israel as part of its blockade, have complicated, delayed and, in some cases prevented reconstruction and repair of destroyed or severely damaged homes.

In other cases, where goods are available, families lack the financial resources to purchase them due to the poor economic situation in Gaza caused largely by the years-long blockade.

Fatma Saudi, 58, a widow and mother of eight, is from one of the worst affected areas in the 2014 hostilities. Her home was severely damaged and the family was displaced for more than six months.

After the ceasefire, she stayed with her three unmarried sons in two pre-fabricated housing units. Living conditions were crowded and extremely cold, so they spend most of their time outside.

One of Fatma’s sons, Nour Din, now 15 years old, has Downs’ Syndrome and attends a special school.

When we met them in 2015, he was still searching through the rubble every day for his laptop, which he lost when their home was hit.

Fatma was afraid that Nour would be exposed to explosive remnants of war as the area was still full of rubble from the hostilities.

During the winter storm in January 2015, it was unbearable to stay in the pre-fabricated housing unit.

Fatma suffered from severe back pains and was badly in need of an operation. She and her children relocated temporarily to her mother’s house.

❝We really need materials to cover the outside area between the two rooms of the caravan, to keep the children safe and offer a little privacy. The situation here is very, very difficult,❞ she said.

❝They told us to evacuate the home as it is uninhabitable and potentially dangerous, but we have nowhere else to go and no money to rent so what can we do?❞ said her brother Abdallah, who was still living in the damaged home.

Fatma points to the skeleton of a building 50 metres away: ❝That was our home,❞ she says quietly.




At times, the Israeli authorities increase their access restrictions inside the West Bank by erecting additional closures and checkpoints.

For example, following a decision adopted on 14 October 2015 by the Israeli Security Cabinet to address a wave of Palestinian violence, Israeli forces installed nearly a hundred new obstacles across the West Bank.

Most of these obstacles (57 per cent as of the end of 2015) were installed in the Hebron governorate, where many of the violent incidents took place.

Al Fawwar refugee camp, to the south of Hebron city and home to over 8,300 people, was severely hit by access restrictions following the installation of a gate closing the main route leading to Hebron city.

Hebron map closures

Hebron closures

This junction was the scene of a number of stabbing and ramming attacks or alleged attacks.

Khadra, a mother of seven, suffers from kidney failure which impairs her mobility.

The closure restricted her ability to attend Hebron hospital, where she receives dialysis three times a week.

When these restrictions were imposed, she had to travel via Yatta, which takes about one hour longer than the regular route, in a special taxi that costs about NIS 240 ($60) per day.

The precarious state of the alternative route was a concern: ❝on one of the trips back from a dialysis session, I began bleeding due to bumps in the road and had to be treated at the camp clinic,❞ Khadra recalls. However, she pointed out that ❝despite the occupation and the closures, I still love life.❞

The gate on the main entrance to al Fawwar camp has since then been opened.

Imad Abu Shamsiyeh


Imad Abu Shamsiyeh from H2 | HEBRON CITY

Imad is a Palestinian resident of Tel Rumeida, near the settlements of Hebron city, and an activist with Human Rights Defenders, documenting human rights violations with his video camera. His home is located between two Israeli checkpoints, each a two-minute walk from his house.

On 24 March 2016, he filmed an Israeli soldier killing an incapacitated Palestinian assailant who had already been shot and injured after stabbing another soldier at one of these checkpoints, following which a trial was held and the second shooter was convicted of manslaughter.


Turnstiles at Bab az Zawiya checkpoint

Reaching Imad’s house is like entering a cage. The main entrance to the house is blocked by a concrete wall, slabs, erected during the second intifada and running for about 50 metres with only one opening that is less than a metre wide.

A military watch tower and a CCTV camera facing his home were put in place nearby after the incident. The house itself is surrounded by metal net fences and the outdoor patio has a net ceiling that was introduced following intense settler attacks, including the throwing of firebombs and large stones.

❝Since filming the extra-judicial killing … life has been unsafe and the family has been torn apart. We’ve been subject to settler violence and threats, as well as harassment from the army.

❝For four months, the army, citing safety reasons, prevented us from using the main entrance to enter or exit the house. Molotov firebombs were thrown at my house and we had to sleep outside of the city for a few nights. Fearing for my older sons’ lives, I had to send them to Al ‘Eizariyia. They’re only 15 and 17 years old.

  Taha al Ju’beh 



At times, the Israeli authorities increase their access restrictions inside the West Bank by erecting additional closures and checkpoints.

For example, following a decision adopted on 14 October 2015 by the Israeli Security Cabinet to address a wave of Palestinian violence, Israeli forces began to block some of the main routes to and from Palestinian neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem.

Within a week, a total of 41 obstacles had been deployed, comprising 23 cement blocks, one earth mound and 17 checkpoints.


‘Isawiya, photo by JC Tordai, 2010

Taha Al Ju’beh, then eight-year-old, suffers from muscle atrophy and depends on an electric wheelchair and a respirator; the latter is powered by a battery that lasts for slightly more than an hour.

As a result of the closures, the travel time to the school in West Jerusalem, where he receives treatment on a daily basis, nearly doubled: from one to two hours.

This required him to rely on an extra-battery to be changed during the journey.

The restrictions imposed in October 2015 affected the freedom of movement of nine Palestinian neighbourhoods, with an estimated population of 138,000, or over 40 per cent of East Jerusalem’s Palestinian population.

This figure does not include residents of municipal areas located behind the Barrier who must cross pre-existing checkpoints to access other parts of Jerusalem.

Issa Ash Shatleh  


Issa Ash Shatleh from BEIT JALA | BETHLEHEM

On the morning of 17 August 2015, Issa Ash Shatleh was informed by a neighbour that the Israeli authorities were uprooting his olive trees.

Some 30 olive trees, the majority of them hundreds of years old, were uprooted to make way for the route of the Barrier in the Cremisan area.

❝Each of these olive trees can yield 16 kilograms of good olive oil, enough for me and my four brothers. But it is more than the monetary value. These trees are hundreds of years old, planted by my ancestors. I have so many memories of both good and bad times associated with them since I was a boy.❞

Although the trees were replanted by the Israeli authorities, Issa complains, ❝Look how close together they are. Some of them have been replanted on my neighbour’s land.

Asked if they will survive and bear fruit in the forthcoming olive harvest, he shrugs.

Issa’s land lies under the bridge that forms part of the rerouting of Road 60 in 1994 to enable settlers to travel between Jerusalem and Hebron and bypass Bethlehem. Part of his land was used by the excavators and bulldozers and trees were damaged. He also lost some trees in 2008 when another section of the Barrier was built in the area.

Issa says that he did not receive official notification from the Israeli authorities to inform him that his land was being requisitioned to build the Barrier.

He also expressed concern about the proposed gate system that the Israeli authorities claim will guarantee him access to land soon to be isolated by the Barrier, given the experience of farmers in the rest of the West Bank.

❝This Wall is contrary to international law,❞ he insists, citing the International Court of Justice advisory opinion. He points to the nearby Gilo and Har Gilo settlements. ❝It’s all about the settlements.❞

Beit Jala Barrier

Beit Jala Barrier

Statement by the UN Coordinator for Humanitarian Aid and Development Activities, Robert Piper, on the 50th Anniversary of Israel’s Occupation available here.

This week marks 50 years since the start of Israel’s occupation of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip. For humanitarians this is the most long-standing protection crisis in the UN’s history.

It should be obvious, but it bears repeating, that Occupation is ugly. Living under foreign military rule for years on end, generates despair, suffocates initiative and leaves generations in a kind of political and economic limbo.

Israel’s occupation is backed by force. Accompanying that ever-present security apparatus have been deliberate policies that have isolated Palestinian communities from each other, ruptured social cohesion, profoundly limited economic activity and deprived many of their basic rights – of movement, of expression, of access to health and much more. In too many cases, these policies have violated international humanitarian law as well as the human rights instruments to which Israel is a party.

One direct result of these policies has been the creation of chronic humanitarian needs among Palestinians. In 2017, nearly half of the 4.8 million Palestinians living in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) will need humanitarian aid of one kind or another.

Many of them require food assistance to compensate for lost livelihoods, others legal aid, and others still, will need water, healthcare or shelter. In a ‘normal’ year – ie. one without a conflict in Gaza – around US$1 billion is allocated from scarce global resources to support the various humanitarian operations underway in the oPt.

Neither the occupation, nor its impact, is static of course. Coping mechanisms are increasingly depleted. The worst impacts are felt by those most vulnerable – children, single mothers, the elderly and disabled. And humanitarians themselves face increasing obstacles in their efforts to mitigate the impacts of occupation, whether it be in increased movement restrictions, the exhaustion of legal processes, the confiscation of our aid, or understandable donor fatigue. As each year passes, the situation deteriorates inexorably, with profound consequences for Palestinians and potentially Israelis as well.

From a humanitarian perspective, 50 years of occupation represents a gross failure of leadership by many – local and international, Israeli and Palestinian. Too many innocent civilians – Palestinian and Israeli alike – are paying for this abject failure to address the underlying causes of the world’s longest-running protection crisis.

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The West Bank and International Humanitarian Law on the Eve of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Six-Day War

By Theodor Meron (The American Society of International Law, 2017)

Judge Meron’s 19-page article is available here to download.

Rarely does a jurist have the opportunity to render a legal opinion twice on the very same case or controversy fifty years apart.

Theodor Meron

Theodor Meron

Theodor Meron was 37 when he was appointed the Legal Adviser of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs shortly after the Six-Day War. He was asked to address some of the international legal implications that followed from that war.

He opined on September 14, 1967 that “the establishment of civilian settlements in the occupied West Bank and other conquered territories violates the Fourth Geneva Convention related to the protection of victims of war and, specifically, its prohibition on settlements (Article 49(6)).” This prohibition is categorical, he wrote, and “not conditioned on the motives or purposes of the transfer, and is aimed at preventing colonization of conquered territory by citizens of the conquering state.”

In March 2017, his opinion has not changed. Given the inexorable demographic change in the West Bank over the past fifty years; the adoption by the Security Council of Resolution 2334 on December 23, 2016; John Kerry’s unprecedented speech delivered on December 28, 2016; and Netanyahu’s immediate rejection of the “shameful UN resolution” — Judge Meron felt compelled to speak up again in support of international law and its requirements and application to the settlements in the occupied West Bank.

Judge Meron’s career is noteworthy and worth recounting here because his opinion carries weight, except with Israeli leaders.


Theodor Meron – President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Judge and President of the United Nations Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals; Judge and Past President of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; former Judge of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; Charles L. Denison Professor Emeritus and Judicial Fellow, New York University School of Law; Visiting Professor, University of Oxford, since 2014; past Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Journal; past Honorary President of the American Society of International Law.

Settlements in the Occupied West Bank

What is the scope of the problem? The Palestinian president says there will be no negotiations until Israel ends the expansion of settlements in the occupied West Bank. The Israeli prime minister says the Palestinians must come to the bargaining table with no preconditions, but he demands that the Palestinians first recognize Israel as a Jewish state. There have been no negotiations since 2010.


Today there are nearly 600,000 Israeli settlers living in the West Bank and East Jerualem. There are 127 government-sanctioned Israeli settlements (not including East Jerusalem and Hebron), and approximately 100 “settlement outposts”. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the annual growth rate for the settler population (excluding East Jerusalem) in 2015 was more than two times higher than that of the overall population in Israel: 4.1% and 2% percent, respectively.  Translated: there are more Israelis today moving to Palestine than to the State of Israel.

Check out this segment on NPR from December 2016 about the settlements.

The Jewish settlements were illegal in 1967 and they remain illegal today.

The Fourth Geneva Convention, adopted in 1949 to protect civilians in a war zone, is considered the “gold standard of humanitarian law.” While 196 countries have signed on, the United Nations concluded in 1993 that the Geneva Conventions had passed into customary law and therefore everyone is bound by them.

What does the Fourth Geneva Convention require of the occupying power (Israel) towards the protected persons (Palestinians) in the territories it occupies?

  1. No collective punishment (article 33) – including no pillage, intimidation, or terrorism. Collective punishment is considered a war crime.
  2. May not forcibly deport protected persons or transfer part of its own civilian population into the occupied territory (article 49).
  3. Must facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children (article 50).
  4. No destruction of property belonging to the protected persons or to public authorities (article 53).
  5. Maintain the public health and hygiene along with the medical facilities in the occupied territories (article 56).

Nakba refugees

Despite clear and strong opinions from the International Court of Justice, supported by a score of Security Council resolutions, the International Red Cross, and a rare consensus of the international community on the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention to the occupied Palestinian territories, the State of Israel has built a 50-year record of parsing the Fourth Geneva Convention, applying provisions it likes while rejecting others. “This opacity is made worse,” Judge Meron writes, “by the reluctance of Israel to divulge in public the list of the Fourth Geneva Convention’s humanitarian provisions which it is prepared to apply.”

Disrespect for international law is, alas, not unusual in the affairs of states. It is rare, however, that disrespect of an international convention would have such a direct impact on the elimination of any realistice prospects for reconciliation, not to mention peace. And it is rarer still that such disrespect of internatioal law should subsist given the number of pronouncements on the matter.

Israeli leaders rejected Meron’s opinion in 1967 and, undoubtedly, reject it today. They hinge their position on the argument that the territories are not occupied because conquered territory only becomes occupied territory when it belongs to a legitimate sovereign that was ousted. This theory disputes the status of Jordan as such a sovereign of the West Bank in 1967 which, in the opinion of Israel makes the Geneva Convention inapplicable de jure. The government has simply decided, in the absence of an international obligation to do so, to act de facto in accordance with the humanitarian provisions of the Convention.

Judge Meron rejects this argument summarily, asking “what would prevent every conquering state from contesting the sovereignty of every defeated state, even where no legitimate doubts about the sovereignty arise?” In a nutshell, the status of the lands conquered in the Six Day War has no bearing on the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention to Israel, as the conquering power.

While the Fourth Geneva Convention bestows rights on the “protected persons” (Palestinians in this case), the Hague Convention No. IV establishes responsibilities on the occupying power, and Israel’s Supreme Court has recognized the applicability of the Hague Convention No. IV as customary law to the West Bank.

There is the requirement to respect private property (Article 46), and the property of municipalities, and that of institutions dedicated to religion, charity and education, and arts and sciences. (Article 56). The occupying power must also safeguard and administer the real estate in accordance with the rules of usufruct.

With the construction of the “security wall” encroaching on Palestinian lands, and a record number of housing demolitions in the West Bank in 2016, the reasonable question Palestinians and the rest of the world might ask is “Who is going to hold the State of Israel accountable for its violations of international law?”

12794787_10208838393703043_5184863994902971158_o Judge Meron concludes his 2017 opinion:

Those of us who are committed to international law, and particularly to respect for international humanitarian law and the principles embodied therein, cannot remain silent when faced with such denials or self-serving interpretations.

But if the continuation of the settlement project on the West Bank has met with practically universal rejection by the international community, it is not just because of its illegality under the Fourth Geneva Convention or under international humanitarian law more generally. Nor is it only because, by preventing the establishment of a contiguous and viable Palestinian territory, the settlement project frustrates any prospect of serious negotiations aimed at a two-state solution, and thus of reconciliation between the Israelis and Palestinians. It is also because of the growing perception that individual Palestinians’ human rights, as well as their rights under the Fourth Geneva Convention, are being violated and that the colonization of territories populated by other people can no longer be accepted in our time.



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#GoingtoGaza – February 2016

In February, I traveled from Amman, Jordan to Jericho in the West Bank, and then to Jerusalem and ended on a kibbutz in southern Israel. I didn’t make it through the Erez Crossing between Israel and Gaza. I’ve been on this journey to return to Gaza for more than 500 days. Since the Israeli border security have taken an interest in my blog, in an effort at full transparency, my daily journal entries for the month of February are republished below.


Lora and Anjon from Bangladesh

Day #518 – Thinking a lot today about the accident of birth. Human souls can be born in Bangladesh, in Amman, in Cairo, in Gaza and in Albuquerque. Each soul is given the same spark of life but planted in different gardens with very different opportunities. The differences would be so wonderful if only we all lived by the Golden Rule: “Treat others as I wish they would treat me.”  The world seems to have forgotten the Golden Rule.  #GoingtoGaza

Day #518 (again) – SCREAMING! Can anyone hear me?  When I arrived in Jordan, the US Embassy in Amman told me that they have nothing to do with the procedures to cross Erez into Gaza. They advised me to check with Israel. Today, an American carrying an invitation from Gaza tried to cross Erez. The Israeli military turned him away and told him he must first have approval from the US Embassy to travel to Gaza. Truly Machiavellian!  The governments of Israel, Egypt and the US are all playing us for SUCKERS! They just keep sending us in circles hoping we will give up. BULLSHIT!  #GoingtoGaza

Day #519 – Past midnight in Amman, Jordan and I can’t sleep. Late afternoon in Iowa.  That might explain it. I can #FeeltheBern half way around the planet. #GoingtoGaza

Day #520 – A good friend questions my “objectivity” about Israel-Palestine, and “holding firm opinions” and “not brokering disagreement.” I agree that I have firm opinions but I think I’m a good listener and willing to modify my opinions based on the facts. I don’t think anyone is objective – although it’s a noble goal, especially for judges and journalists. But my friend says it’s hard to give me “honest feedback” because I turn it around into an “abstract discussion of objectivity” and “deflect” the criticism. I’m having a tough time figuring out what to do with this information. #GoingtoGaza

Day #521 – I visited the Syrian Women’s Center in Amman. The goal is to help Syrian women learn skills to become self-sufficient and earn some $$ — cooking, sewing, hairdressing. Women learn to sew on a sewing machine and then the machine is theirs to keep.  They bring the clothes they make at home to the Center which buys them and turns around to sell them in Amman to support the Center. The refugees prefer this arrangement rather than handouts or gifts from donors. Self-respect and pride! The Center also has an after school program for 75 Syrian orphans. One of the volunteers at the Center has an Uncle living in . . . Gallup, New Mexico!  Again, I’m reminded how small this world is and how interconnected we are with one another. #GoingtoGaza

Day #522 – Jews, Christians, Muslims — it doesn’t matter in the eyes of the One, as long as you act in a way that is consistent with the teachings of your religion. There are too many Jews, Christians and Muslims who wear their faith on their sleeve for the world to see, but fail the test. Treat your neighbor as you wish they would treat you. #GoingtoGaza

Day #523 – Palestinians are on Amman TV tonight. The news includes extensive reporting about the violence in the West Bank and interviews Palestinians, not Israelis. Later, a singing talent contest includes a Palestinian boy from Beirut who has never visited Palestine. Even though I don’t understand much of the Arabic, it’s clear the Palestinians are not going to forget the Nakba and they’re not going away. Israel and Israelis had better wake-up.  #GoingtoGaza


Star of David painted on the road in Amman, Jordan

Day #524 – Pondering the Star of David I saw painted on the street pavement in Amman yesterday. Clearly a sign of hatred and disdain towards the State of Israel. Israelis may not like the message but they really should listen to the messenger.  #GoingtoGaza

Day #525 – Watched a movie with my friend in Amman called “Face Off” starring Nicholas Cage and John Travolta.  The plot involves an FBI agent and a bad criminal surgically switching their faces and identities.  Wonder what would happen if Netanyahu and Abbas switched their identities so the world was fooled? That would shake-up the status quo!  #GoingtoGaza

Day #526 – Sometimes a writer’s pen can strike the perfect prose — as in “the convenient rapture of Orwellian realities.” I read this today and it has stuck with me. Thanks to Noura Erakat who was writing about Israel’s argument of “Legitimate self-defense” when it’s bombing the shit out of a defenseless civilian population in Gaza. #GoingtoGaza

Day #527 – Read a report today that Netanyahu plans to surround the entire State of Israel with a fence to keep the ‘carnivorous animals’ in neighboring countries out. I think he’s building his very own prison to keep the Zionists in.  #GoingtoGaza

Day #528 – Can Gaza be a Livable Community? That’s the $10 million question. And the one I’ve been pondering for awhile. #GoingtoGaza

Day #529 – Do you know who Ash Carter is? I didn’t know until a Jordanian friend pointed him out to me on TV news in Amman. Hint: It was a long segment about Daesh. I’m certainly feeling humbled. #GoingtoGaza

Day #530 – One of the most frustrating experiences about traveling abroad is watching TV news while images of tanks & the military dominate the screen for 15-30 minutes but I can’t understand the Arabic except for Daesh “this” and Daesh “that”.   #GoingtoGaza

Day #531 – My desire to travel and see “the world” began when I was a child, continued as a young adult, through middle age, and was constantly postponed because I never had time, never had $$, and never had the courage I thought I needed. Still no $$, a wavering courage, and plenty of time = the 3 perfect ingredients for experiencing “the world” in a much more meaningful way.  #GoingtoGaza


Day #532 – After 5 hours (about 3.5 hours of questions) I finally was given permission to enter Palestine – Israel. My notoriety preceded me … my name was flagged in the computer at the border with Jordan. And the Israeli security officials were aware of my blog … WHY GAZA?  Thankful to all the friends who helped me and my red suitcase get to the West Bank. #GoingtoGaza

Day #533 – My first full day in Jericho; visited the waqf office and learned about the Islamic legal system of perpetual trusts. Cannot sell Waqf land. My host keeps the TV turned on to the recitation of the Qur’an when she’s away from home. #GoingtoGaza

12748143_10208766190218001_4289558625012703185_oVisiting 3 sisters who are Catholics and have lived together their whole lives in Jericho

Day #534 – We are one! Three elderly spinster sisters living together in Jericho are Catholics but obviously feel at home in a Muslim-majority community. The caretaker at the small mosque shows me his hand and fingers. He tells me that just like the 3 joints in each finger, the 3 religions are attached as one. The hand works because all 3 joints work together. Same with Judaism, Christianity and Islam. #GoingtoGaza

Day #535 – Time slows considerably. There is time for sitting with neighbors, with friends, with family and drinking coffee, tea and sharing stories, lessons, and gossip. Making time for each other might be the key to their resilience. Their sumud. I’m learning to slow myself down and just listen. I learn a lot even without understanding Arabic.  Ramallah, on the other hand, is full of youthful frenetic energy. And everywhere in the West Bank I see construction. The Palestinians are building. The Israelis are building. And I think all of the Holy Land is under construction. I wonder what it will look like when (if) it’s ever completed. #GoingtoGaza

The next generation in Jericho, Palestine

Day #536 – Friday is the day focused on the family in Palestine. I spent the day sitting and listening to lots of conversations in Arabic, wondering if there will ever be a breakthrough when I understand the language. Babies can pick up the language. Why not me? #GoingtoGaza


The Grand Mufti of Jericho taught himself how to stitch while he was in Israel’s prison for 6 years.

Day #537 – Saturday we visited extended family and I saw old photographs on the wall that reminded me of my ex-husband’s family in Maxwell, New Mexico. The big difference: extended family in the US can hop in the car, bus, train, plane and visit each other.  Not in Palestine.  I have friends in Gaza who haven’t received permission from Israel to visit family in Jericho for many, many years. So I’m taking photos to share with them.  #GoingtoGaza

The Israeli checkpoint between West Bank into Jerusalem & the Old City

Day #538 – Today I traveled from Jericho to Jerusalem, as the crow flies maybe 25 km, but it’s not easy. Two cars, one taxi, a tram and much walking, I finally made it to Ecce Homo Pilgrim House in the Muslim Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem. Listening to the Muezzin Call to Prayer followed by many bells calling Christians to pray. What is everyone praying for in this militarized city that looks like a prison when you cross the border control?  Everyone I’ve asked (Palestinian – Israeli) says they believe the situation is going to get worse.  #GoingtoGaza

Day #539 – Always need a Plan B. Today it is raining and chilly in Jerusalem – not good for walking through the Old City as I had hoped. So I’m going to sit inside the warm Ecce Homo Pilgrim House and read and write. Listening to the Call to Prayer, the bells ringing for the noon mass and the Israeli jets flying overhead. Life is about being flexible and going with the flow.  #GoingtoGaza

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Laila and Lora with the red suitcase of books headed to Gaza

Day #540 – The red suitcase full of books made it to Gaza yesterday. Al-hamdulillah. I wish I was with the suitcase. Friends from Gaza are asking me to take a picture of Al Aqsa. A Jewish friend from Australia is posting exuberant messages on FB about raffling off free tickets to Israel.   Jerusalem is a special place for so many people. I think it’s easier to travel from Australia to Jerusalem (13,707 km) than it is from Gaza to Jerusalem (97.2 km). #GoingtoGaza

Day #541 – Visited the Town of Abu Ghosh today near Jerusalem. An Arab town with a very interesting history. My friend introduced me to a number of interesting people in the community. Perhaps the one who struck me the most was a young Palestinian Christian woman from the Galilee who is a mother of 3 young children, married to an American Jew. Both are lawyers. They’ve decided to leave Israel and move to DC this summer because they believe the situation in Israel is too dangerous for them to raise a family. #GoingtoGaza

Day #542 – Rode the light rail around Jerusalem today to see different parts of the city.  General impressions: guns and uniforms everywhere; motorized bikes are the rage with both the young and the old; the Jews and the Muslims inhabit very different parts of the City for the most part; and everyone I spoke with (Muslim and Jew) felt “the situation” will not get better.  Bibi and the country’s leaders are not instilling hope. I wonder if the IDF “regrets” the loss of life in Gaza as the Irgun did with the 92 people they killed 70 years ago at the King David Hotel?  #GoingtoGaza

Children in Jerusalem are growing up with mixed signals 

Day #543 – Going on a 4-hour tour today in East Jerusalem organized by Ir Amim. I wish my Zionist friends and family could join me. When they visit Israel, I feel they are protected from the truth in their bubbles of denial, but I understand that denial better now. Even some progressive-leftist American-Israeli Jews prefer to avoid the “discomfort of discussion.” I want to yell – “What about the discomfort of death and dying under occupation?” #GoingtoGaza

Day #544 – Watched “Inherit the Wind” tonight with an Israeli friend who lives on a Kibbutz. The 1960 film is about the true story of the 1920s Scopes Monkey Trial where a young teacher was put on trial by God-fearing ignorant bigots for teaching about Darwin’s theory of evolution.  My friend and I noted the similarities between the USA of 1920s, the USA of today, and Israel today. Freedom of thought and critical thinking skills seem to be dangerous commodities. #GoingtoGaza


Day #545 – Walked around this kibbutz in southern Israel surrounded by two barbed wire fences. My Kibbutz friend shared a poem with me. It’s called “Walls”.

Man is

a great wall builder

The Berlin Wall

The Wailing Wall of Jerusalem

But the wall

most impregnable

Has a moat

flowing with fright

around his heart


A wall without Windows

for the spirit to breeze through


A wall

without a door

for love to walk in.

-Oswald Mtshali, Soweto poet


And Lora’s poem:

Walls or bridges?

Walls divide, bridges connect

Walls despair, bridges aspire

Walls close, bridges open

Walls inhabit the small minds of the rejectionists,

Bridges fill the creative dreams of the future.


Day #546 – Some friends are asking why I was so bummed out about my visit to Jerusalem.  I suppose part of the reason is because I got so close to Gaza but still didn’t get permission to enter. I’m also shocked with the level of denial that is so pervasive in the City. I would expect the orthodox and conservative religious Jews to turn a blind eye to the injustices in their midst because they are the privileged beneficiaries of the occupation. But even the self-identified left and progressive Jews prefer to avoid a critical discussion. They tell me they have no hope. And some prefer to leave Israel rather than try to change the horrid situation from the inside.  #GoingtoGaza


Filed under Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Occupation, Politics, Uncategorized



Farmer’s son cuts some cauliflower and greens for us from his field in Jericho.

A good day to reflect on my week in Jericho because the rain and wind are keeping me inside in Jerusalem.

Jericho is located near the Dead Sea, and many consider it the oldest inhabited city in the world, more than 11,000 years old. An Arab geographer in 985 wrote that the “water of Jericho is considered the highest and the best in all Islam.”

I saw the concrete lined channels carrying the water to the fields and the bounty of date and banana trees, cauliflower and many other vegetables growing under plastic sheeting with drip irrigation.

Jericho’s long, long history might be summed up as conquest after conquest. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed at the end of World War I, Jericho came under the rule of the British in Mandatory Palestine.   Then in 1948 Jericho was occupied by Transjordan during the Arab-Israeli war.

The Jericho Conference, organized by King Abdullah and attended by over 2,000 Palestinian delegates in 1948 proclaimed “His Majesty Abdullah as King of all Palestine” and called for “the unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity.” In mid-1950, Jordan formally annexed the West Bank and Jericho residents, like other residents of West Bank localities became Jordanian citizens.[51]

During the Six Day War in 1967, Jericho was occupied by Israel along with the rest of the West Bank. During my visit, I saw very few signs of the presence of Israel or the occupation in Jericho. Jets flying overhead signaled Israel’s presence. I later learned that it was the first city handed over to Palestinian Authority control in accordance with the Oslo Accords.


Basketball game in Jericho

The limited Palestinian self-rule of Jericho was agreed on in the Gaza–Jericho Agreement of 4 May 1994. Part of the agreement was a “Protocol on Economic Relations”, signed on 29 April 1994.[53] The city is in an enclave of the Jordan Valley that is in Area A of the West Bank, while the surrounding area is designated as being in Area C under full Israeli military control. Four roadblocks encircle the enclave, restricting Jericho’s Palestinian population’s movement through the West Bank.

Israel sent her troops into Jericho during the second intifada and even dug a deep trench around a large portion of the city to control Palestinian traffic in and out of Jericho. I met a man in Jericho who described what it felt like when the Israeli soldiers entered his house, demanding that he come downstairs from his bed where he was recuperating after surgery. Soldiers could re-enter Jericho at any time, and it’s this reality that hangs like an oppressive unseen blanket over the city.


Palestinians from East Jerusalem are purchasing land in Jericho and building homes because they are worried that Israel will force them to leave Jerusalem. Price of land and houses are rising rapidly in Jericho.

In 1994, Israel and the Palestinians signed an economic accord that enabled Palestinians in Jericho to open banks, collect taxes and engage in export and import in preparation for self-rule. In 1998, a $150 million casino-hotel was built in Jericho with the backing of Yasser Arafat.

I never saw the U.S. presence in Jericho but learned later …

In 2009, Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs David Johnson inaugurated the Presidential Guard Training Center in Jericho, a $9.1 million training facility for Palestinian Authority security forces built with U.S. funding.

Most of my time was spent with family and friends in Jericho, observing the strength of filial bonds, the tradition of sitting and talking over coffee and sweets, and the absolute certainty that Palestine is their land and they will prevail someday.


Visiting 3 sisters who are Catholics and have lived together their whole lives in Jericho.

The take-away message for me was one of “patience”.  The Palestinians I met in Jericho (Muslims and Christians) seem to have patience in their DNA.

One man in particular made an impression on me. He was a young (30+ something) caretaker of a small Mosque. He noticed me taking photos of the Mosque and greeted me. He spoke broken English but I learned enough to know that he was a volunteer caretaker and lived on the property with his wife and two young children. He held out his hand to me, palm up, and showed me his fingers. He pointed out the joints in each finger and said: “We are like these joints — the Jews, the Christians and the Muslims. Each connected and working together to make the whole hand work as one.” I interpreted his message as meaning that all of us are connected, as one hand, and we must help each other and live together.


Caretaker of the small Mosque in Jericho showing me his hand.



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The U.S. placed Hamas on the list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations in October 1997. Since Hamas came to power in the Gaza Strip (2005-2006), the U.S. and Israel have clamped a suffocating siege on the 1.7 million Palestinians living in Gaza.

I suppose the hope (more like wishful thinking) was that the ordinary people on the street would feel the brutal impacts of the siege and rise up and overthrow Hamas. If that’s really the strategic thinking of Israeli and American counter-terrorism “experts”, they have been proven wrong. So their fall back position has been extrajudicial killings (targeting Hamas in their cars and homes) and murdering innocent civilians (AKA collateral damage).


As someone who has met members of Hamas, shared meals with Hamas, accepted shelter in their homes, and toured the destruction following Israel’s bombing in November 2012 with Hamas leaders, I have a more nuanced understanding of what defines a terrorist.  (More about Hamas in a future blog post).

I recently learned that the U.S. State Department added extremist Jewish settlers and groups who commit “Price tag” attacks in its annual report on terrorism.

“Price tag” attacks (property crimes and violent acts by extremist Jewish individuals and groups in retaliation for activity they deemed to be anti-settlement) expanded into Israel from the West Bank in 2013. The Israeli government formed a new unit of the national police designated specifically to investigate these crimes in both Israel and the West Bank and in June the Security Cabinet authorized the Ministry of Defense to classify groups that perpetrated “price tag” attacks as “illegal associations,” which allowed security authorities greater leeway in collecting information on and seizing the property of groups, and of their members, that perpetrated “price tag” attacks. Incidents included:
  • In July, gravestones in a Christian Orthodox cemetery in Jaffa were vandalized with the words “revenge” and “price tag.” Price tag graffiti was also found on a residential building near the cemetery.
  • In August, the Beit Jamal Monastery near Jerusalem was firebombed and spray-painted with the words “death to the Gentiles” and other slogans.

This is a new and significant development. I wonder what push back State Department officials are feeling from AIPAC. It certainly hasn’t received attention in the mainstream press, even as the violence perpetrated by Jewish settlers against Palestinians in the West Bank intensifies. The murder of 16-year-old Mohammad Aby Khdair is the most recent example.

I’ve known for some time that terrorism is in the eye of the beholder. Labels are too simplistic and, in this case, too provocative to be very helpful, but I’m pleased that the U.S. government is officially recognizing the terror perpetrated by extremist settlers in the West Bank.

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